### Goals

Understanding fundamentals of Python programming:

• Variables, data types, lists, sets and tuples.
• Conditional expressions and loops
• Sort
• Dictionary
• Files and user interaction
• #### Exercise 1

```            ```
# This is a comment
print("Bonjour")
```
```

2. Variables

```            ```
# a variable
message = "le monde!"
print(message)
```
```
```            ```
a = 10
b = 20
c = a + b
print(c)
```
```
```            ```
# floating point numbers
pi = 3.14
print(pi)
```
```
```            ```
# data types
message1 = "Bonjour"
a = 12
pi = 3.14
print(type(message1))
print(type(a))
print(type(pi))
```
```

3. Concatenation of two strings

```            ```
# concatenation of two strings
message = "le monde!"
print("Bonjour" + message)
```
```
```            ```
# concatenation of two strings
message1 = "Bonjour "
message2 = "le monde!"
print(message1 + message2)
```
```
```            ```
# concatenation involving two variables of different data types
# operation + on two different data types
message1 = "Bonjour en Python"
a = 3
print(message1 + a)
```
```
```            ```
# concatenation solution involving two variables of different data types
message1 = "Bonjour en Python "
a = 3
print(message1 + str(a))
```
```

4. Lists

```            ```
a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
print(a)
print(a)
print(a)
print(a)
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
message1 = "Bonjour en Python "
print(message1)
print(message1)
print(message1)
print(message1)
print(message1)
print(message1)
print(message1)
print(message1)
```
```
```            ```
message1 = "Bonjour en Python "
print(len(message1))
```
```
```            ```
a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
print(len(a))
```
```
```            ```
a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
a.append(60)
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
a = 0
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
a = 20
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
a.insert(0, 0)
print(a)
print(len(a))
```
```
```            ```
a = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
a.insert(6,60)
print(a)
print(len(a))
```
```

5. Tuples (non-modifiable lists)

```            ```
a = (10, 20, 30, 40, 50)
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = (10, 20, 30, 40, 50)
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = (10, 20, 30, 40, 50)
a = 0
print(a)
```
```

6. Sets

```            ```
a = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50}
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50}
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50}
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50}
a.remove(40)
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
# set
a = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50}
print(a)
print(type(a))

# tuple
b = (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50)
print(b)
print(type(b))

# list
c= [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
print(c)
print(type(c))
```
```

#### Exercise 2

1. Conditional Expressions

```            ```
a = 12
if( a%2 == 0):
print(a, " is divisible by 2")
else:
print(a, " is not divisible by 2")
```
```
```            ```
lang = "Français"
if (lang =="Français"):
print("Bonjour le monde!")
else:
print("Hello World!")
```
```

2. Loops

```            ```
for i in [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50]:
print(i)
```
```
```            ```
for i in (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50):
print(i)
```
```
```            ```
for i in {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50}:
print(i)
```
```

2. Range

```            ```
for i in range(0,10):
print(i)
```
```
```            ```
for i in range(0,10,2):
print(i)
```
```
```            ```
for i in range(0,10,2):
print(i, end=' ')
```
```
```            ```
for i in range(10,0,-2):
print(i)
```
```
```            ```
for i in range(10,0):
print(i)
```
```
```            ```
for i in "Bonjour,le,monde!".split():
print(i)
```
```
```            ```
for i in "Bonjour,le,monde!".split(","):
print(i)
```
```

Write a program in Python to display the following output

```            ```
1
12
123
1234
12345
123456
1234567
12345678
```
```

#### Exercise 3

1. Sort

```            ```
num = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
num.sort()
print(num)
```
```

2. Sort (decreasing order)

```            ```
num = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
num.sort(reverse=True)
print(num)
```
```

3. minimum

```            ```
num = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
print(min(num))
```
```

4. maximum

```            ```
num = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
print(max(num))
```
```

5. sorted()

```            ```
num = [70, 20, 30, 10, 50, 60, 20, 80, 70, 50]
num = sorted(num,reverse=True)[:5]
print(num)
```
```

Modify the code given below to display the five greatest unique numbers.

```            ```
print(sorted("Bonjour le monde!".split(), key=str.lower,
reverse=True))
```
```

#### Exercise 4

1. Dictionary

```            ```
a = {"contente": 12, "content": 12, "triste": 2}
print(a)
print(type(a))
```
```
```            ```
a = {"contente": 12, "content": 12, "triste": 2}
for cle in a:
print("la phrase ", key, " apparait ", a[cle], " fois")
```
```
```            ```
a = {"contente": 12, "content": 12, "triste": 2}
for key,value in a.items():
print("la phrase ", key, " apparait ", value, " fois")
```
```
```            ```
a = {"contente": 12, "content": 12, "triste": 2}
a["joie"] = 10
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
a = {"contente": 12, "content": 12, "triste": 2}
del a["triste"]
print(a)
```
```
```            ```
mots = {"contente": 12, "content": 12, "triste": 2,
"joie" : 10}
print(sorted(mots))
```
```
```            ```
mots = {"contente": 12, "content": 12, "triste": 2,
"joie" : 10}
mots_tuple = [(key, value) for key,value in mots.items()]
print(mots_tuple)
```
```

2. itemgetter

```            ```
from operator import itemgetter

mots = {"contente": 12, "content": 12, "triste": 2,
"joie" : 10}
mots_tuple = [(key, value) for key,value in mots.items()]
print(sorted(mots_tuple, key=itemgetter(1)))
```
```

3. Interaction avec l'utilisateur

```            ```
nom = input("Quel est votre nom?")
print(nom)
```
```
```            ```
age = input("Quel est votre âge? ")
print(age)
print(type(age))
```
```
```            ```
age = input("Quel est votre âge? ")
age = int(age)
print(age)
print(type(age))
```
```

Question: Write a program in Python that interacts with the user to obtain the following information of 5 students:

• Name of student
• Age

Once the information for all the five students is obtained, calculate and display the following values for every module:

#### Exercise 5

1. Files

```            ```
message = "Bonjour le monde"
with open("bonjour.txt", "w") as file:
file.write(message)
file.close()
```
```
```            ```
with open("bonjour.txt", "r") as file:
print(text)
file.close()
```
```
```            ```
message1 = "Bonjour le monde"
message2 = "Programmation en Python"
with open("bonjour.txt", "w") as file:
file.write(message1)
file.write(message2)
file.close()
```
```
```            ```
with open("bonjour.txt", "r") as file:
print(text)
file.close()
```
```
```            ```
message1 = "Bonjour le monde\n"
message2 = "Programmation en Python"
with open("bonjour.txt", "w") as file:
file.write(message1)
file.write(message2)
file.close()

with open("bonjour.txt", "r") as file:
print(text)
file.close()
```
```

```            ```
message1 = "Bonjour le monde\n"
message2 = "Programmation en Python"
with open("bonjour.txt", "w") as file:
file.write(message1)
file.write(message2)
file.close()
```
```
```            ```
with open("bonjour.txt", "r") as file:
print(text)
file.close()
```
```
```            ```
message1 = "Bonjour le monde\n"
message2 = "Programmation en Python\n"
with open("bonjour.txt", "w") as file:
file.write(message1)
file.write(message2)
file.close()
```
```
```            ```
with open("bonjour.txt", "r") as file:
for line in file:
print(line)
file.close()
```
```

Question: Copy any HTML file in your home directory. Write a program in Python to get the following values:

• number of characters in the HTML file
• number of lines in the HTML file
• number of words in the HTML file
• first twenty words in the HTML file
• distinct words in the HTML file

Question: Copy CSV file in your home directory. The file contains the population values between 1901 and 2016. Write a program in Python to get the maximum value.

• the maximum value of population
• the minimum value of population